Pre-Inca Cultures, the Colonial Period, the Society the Economy, Government, Culture, Travel and Tourism. Peru history book includes Peru colonization and pattern, Peru people, Peru government Peru culture, Peru economy, Peru travel guide, Peru tourism. The first great conquest of Andean space began some 10,000 years ago when the descendants of the original migrants who crossed the land bridge over what is now the Bering Straits between the Asian and American continents reached northern South America. Over the next several millennia, hunter-gatherers fanned out from their bridgehead at Panama to populate the whole of South America. By about 2500 B.C., small villages inhabited by farmers and fishermen began to spring up in the fertile river valleys of the north coast of Peru.