Origins of Portugal, Early Inhabitants, Muslim Domination, Christian Reconquest, The Society and Its Environment, Ethnicity and Ethnic Groups, The Economy, Government. Culture, Travel and Tourism. Origins of Portugal and present government and political situation. The Iberian Peninsula is a geographic unit that contains a number of distinct regions based on climate and geomorphology, such as Andalusia, Castile, Galicia, and Lusitania. Lusitania, which now encompasses the modern nation-state of Portugal, is generally set off from the other regions of the peninsula by areas of higher elevation that run parallel to the Atlantic coast, greater rainfall, and a more moderate climate. It was this regional distinctiveness, as well as the internal geography of Lusitania--largely open to the south but hemmed in by mountains on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the west--that gave rise to a culturally and socially distinct people, the Portuguese, and later to an independent nation-state, Portugal. History of Portugal book also provides you the following, Portugal culture, Portugal art, Portugal travel guide, Portugal touristic environment. Portugal History and Cultural Information and Travel Guide. Vacation package Book.