Christian Nubia, The Coming of Islam, The Arabs, Government, Politics, Economy. Northern Sudan's earliest historical record comes from Egyptian sources, which described the land upstream from the first cataract, called Cush, as "wretched." For more than 2,000 years after the Old Kingdom (ca. 2700-2180 B.C.), Egyptian political and economic activities determined the course of the central Nile region's history. Even during intermediate periods when Egyptian political power in Cush waned. Complete history in this book. Sudan History and Cultural Information and Travel Guide. Vacation package Book.